Monday, March 16, 2020

History of the book Emma by Jane Austen essayEssay Writing Service

History of the book Emma by Jane Austen essayEssay Writing Service History of the book Emma by Jane Austen essay History of the book Emma by Jane Austen essay  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The book Emma written by Jane Austen, a widely acclaimed English author, whose novels were published anonymously over the course of the 19-th century, is a great success with the public today. According to researchers, Jane Austen’s â€Å"continued success as a novelist is evident in the fact that many of her novels have been made into films or television series† (Green 18).   Emma is no exclusion. Jane Austen is considered to be one of the greatest English writers, while her novel Emma can be viewed by many literary critics as the greatest literary piece (Green 18). One of the critics who devoted his life to the analysis and criticism of Jane Austen’s works was R. V. Chapman, the editor of many scholarly editions of all books written by the author (McDonald 97). According to Richard McDonald, â€Å"Austen’s continued acclaim as a novelist is ensured by more than 180 years of praise from both critics and readers, but within her own lifetime her talents were seldom fully appreciated† (97). Jane Austen herself rated her literary abilities and talents too low. She was really surprised to learn about her novel’s success (Parrill 23).   In other words, she did not expect the acknowledgement of the public. Moreover, her concern regarding the fate of her books with the public was demonstrated in her personal relation to her heroines.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Jane Austen was born in 1775. Her birthplace was Steventon Rectory in Hampshire, England. Her father served as an incumbent. The family was â€Å"risen to prominence and prosperity in the Weald of Kent during the reign of Elizabeth I by way of sheep farming and the manufacture of woolen cloth† (Tucker 6). Her mother belonged to a higher social class. Jane Austen loved literature and enjoyed reading novels. As a child, she used to read books from her fath er’s library (Tucker 6). In addition, she borrowed books from her friends and city libraries. She shared her thoughts about the books she read with her family members. Jane Austen loved to read aloud. She started writing books and read aloud to her family members. She paid due attention to pauses, emphasis and tone of voice. As a result, her writing style is impressive (Tucker 6). Her book Emma is one of the most psychological writings. Jane Austen believed that this book would survive the test of time; therefore, she was interested in readers’ response to her works (Tucker 7). The novel Emma was the fourth published novel by Jane Austen. Actually, it was the last book to appear before her death. Both novels Persuasion and Northanger Abbey written by Jane Austen would be published posthumously (Galperin 189). Though many novels were published anonymously, many works by Austen were noticed by highly acclaimed literary critics and by a large number of literature lovers.T he history of the book Emma is unique. The author began to write her book in 1814 and completed it in 1815. The first edition of the book was published in December 1815 by an English publisher John Murray, the founder of the publishing house in London. It is known that Jane Austen submitted the manuscript of her new book to the publisher, six months after it was completed in order to receive the money she needed to pay the expenses for her brother’s illness (Baker 37). John Murray had a good reputation in London and could help the author of the book to achieve success. First, he received positive response from William Gifford who was well-known as an English critic and editor. Second, he â€Å"offered Jane Austen $450 for her copy of Emma plus the copyrights of Mansfield Park and Sense and Sensibility†(Baker 37). In fact, Jane Austen failed to approve the proposal made by John Murray. They came to an arrangement to publish the book Emma at Jane Austen’s expense with â€Å"profits to her after payment of 10% commission to the publisher† (Baker 37). Besides, Jane Austen had the copyrights of her works. The first edition of the book included 2000 copies. The selling price for the three volumes was only 1.1pound. By the end of the year 1816, 248 copies of the book Emma were sold in London and other large cities (Wenborn 35).   The author of the book would have earned 221pound, but the publisher included the losses he had for the book Mansfield Park and gave Jane Austen only 38 pounds. However, in 1818, only 565 copies of the book Emma were sold at the price of two shillings each. Compared Emma to Scott’s novel Rob Roy, published in the same period in 1817, over 10.000 copies were sold in less than two weeks (Wenborn 35). Thus, although many critics accepted Emma as a successful novel, there was no enormous public acceptance of the book. As a result, the second edition of the book was issued only in 1833. However, the scholarly edition edited by R. V. Chapman appeared in 1923. There were few correction made to the text of the novel. In addition, it has been found that Emma â€Å"was reissued, together with the other five novels, in Bentley’s Standard Novels series of 1832-33 and was reprinted in 1837, 1866and 1869† (Wenborn 35). According to Richard McDonald, â€Å"there are a number of good editions of the novel and many of them are augmented by historical and critical essays that can aid in the reader’s appreciation of the text and its critical history†(97). In the United States, Austen’s novel Emma was published without her knowledge in 1816. Besides, regular editions of this book came out over the course of the 19-th century- 20-th century. Although the author of Emma could earn only thirty eight pounds from the book during her lifetime, she hoped that her book would be highly appreciated after her death. Austen was 39 when she completed her novel. She died a year an d a half after the book’s publication (Wenborn 35).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The response to the novel Emma was unpredictable by the author of the book. Jane Austen collected the opinions regarding her novel Emma, analyzing the first responses to the works. As a rule, first responses documented â€Å"not only what her earliest readers made of her works, but also priorities and preconceptions about literature in the reading community of which Jane Austen was herself a part† (Halsey 95). The first responses to Emma gave explanation to further criticism because many themes appeared in critical commentaries about the novel over the course of the late 19-th century. Literary critics placed emphasis on the fact that characters described in the novel as well as the events were unnatural. According to Halsey, â€Å"Austen’s fidelity to detail and rejection of excess would also be noted, commented on and discussed in successive readers’ respons es to her work† (96). Richard Whately was one of the first critics of her novel Emma. He highlighted the ability of the author to â€Å"give fiction the perfect appearance of reality† (qtd. in Halsey 96). As a matter of fact, this assumption became a cornerstone of many critical responses of the public. Most of critics of the 19-th century defended her art and style. Jane Austen’s earliest readers loved her novel and characters, describing her writing as impressive, but there were people who through that Emma was â€Å"inferior to all the others† (qtd. in Halsey 96). In general, the book Emma was less popular than its predecessors, Sense and Sensibility and Mansfield Park.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In addition, the reactions of the earlier readers of the novel Emma placed emphasis on the qualities of the literary work. John Murray was one of the first readers of the novel. Another critic was Sir Walter Scott, a highly acclaimed novelist a nd â€Å"distinguished contributor to the influential Quarterly Review† (Thomas 53). He reviewed Emma, and assessed Jane Austen as a talented novelist. He was among the first critics who gave Jane Austen significant recognition that she was the novelist of distinction (Thomas 53). According to researchers, Scott’s review and criticism were focused on â€Å"the writer’s use of detail, fineness of prose style and depth of characterization† (Baker 96). Actually, Scott as a literary critic used these elements to assess the quality of Jane Austen’s fiction. He found that in her works, there is reality, which reflects the universe of fiction. According to Scott, in the novel Emma, there is obvious historical significance of a new â€Å"modern novel† in contrast to â€Å"sentimental romance, in which the nature imitated is a la belle nature† (qtd. in Baker 96). Scott highly praised the novel Emma for the author’s emphasis on realism. He credited Jane Austen as a new kind of novelist, because she was focused on producing the so-called realist novel (Thomas 53). According to Scott, Emma reflects â€Å"the art of coping from nature as she really exists in the common walks of life, and presenting †¦. a concrete and striking representation of that which is daily taking place† (qtd. in Thomas 53).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Generally speaking, the novel Emma was perceived differently by the 19-th century public. According to Ruth Thomas, â€Å"Emma made few waves in literary circles when it was first published in 1815†(53). In aristocratic circles, the book was very popular. The evidence of this popularity is Jane Austen’s dedication to the Prince Regent, which was made at request of the librarian who served Prince. The novel Emma helped the writer to feel self-esteem because many opinions and reviews were positive. Nevertheless, according to Scott, the novel Emma â€Å"went out of print for the next twenty years, suffering the penalty of being anti-romantic in an age of romanticism†(qtd. in Thomas 53). Most literary critics of the 19-th century and early 20-th century highlighted the writer’s ability to depict verisimilitude (Ellis 34). The most widely used epithets that described Jane Austen’s literary work were â€Å"natural† and â€Å"real† (Thomas 53). However, there were many objections to her writing style. Most of them were based on the representation of obvious limitations of settings and subjects in her work. In the early 1930s, the negative criticism toward Austen’s novel ceased as highly acclaimed literary critic F. R. Leavis called Jane Austen a classic novelist, placing her in the list of the greatest English novelists. Since that time, the novel Emma has been widely acclaimed for the talent of Austen.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Many critics believe that in the novel Emma, the main heroine was not intended to be assessed by the public and the author as a sympathetic character. Barbara Z. Thaden states that many literary critics have discussed a number of dissimilarities between Emma and other heroines of Austen’s novels, but â€Å"few believe that Austen did not sympathize with Emma† (19). However, the commentary provided by Jane Austen’s nephew J.E. Austen-Leigh proves the fact that the author loved her heroine: â€Å"She was very fond of Emma, but did not reckon her being a general favorite; for, when commencing that work, she said, â€Å"I’m going to take a heroine whom no one but myself will much like† (qtd. in Thaden 19).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The numerous editions of the novel Emma are different because of different editors and their individual attitudes toward the book and the author, and time periods. The novel Emma was reprinted many times, as well as the other novels by Jane Austen. The well- known editors of the novel Emma were R.W. Chapman, Lionel Trilling, Stephen Parrish, Fiona Stafford and others (Thaden 19). Actually, the novel Emma is available in the Penguin Classics Editions, the World Classics Series, and the Everyday Library, presenting the distinguished list of editors, literary critics and commentators of the novel. According to researchers, due to the publication of Memoir written by Jane Austen’s nephew, James Edward Austen-Leigh in 1870, there was the so-called resurgence of readers’ interest in the novel Emma and other works by Jane Austen. He writes in the introduction of the second edition of Memoir published in 1871,The Memoir of my Aunt, Jane Austen, has been received with more favor that I had ventured to expect. The notices taken of it in the periodical press, as well as letters addressed to me by many with whom I am not personally acquainted, show that an unabated interest is still taken in every particular that can be told about her (Austen-Leigh 5).In R.W. Chapman’s edition of Emma, published in 1870, was based on recent criticism. Chapman considered the book one of the best novels produced by English writers. He expressed his attitude toward the author’s style, placing emphasis on the detailed description of Emma’s success in literary world. He wrote that the supremacy of the novel is concluded not in the forms of characterization selected by the author, but inthe matchless symmetry of its design, in the endless fascination of its technique, above all in the flow of the blood beneath the smooth polished skin: a flow of human charity and sympathy that beats with a steady pulse, rarely – but the more momentously – quickening to a throb that sets out own veins   lapping the unison (23).History of the book Emma by Jane Austen   essay part 2

Friday, February 28, 2020

Media effects of societies Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Media effects of societies - Research Paper Example As a matter of fact, these operations have proven both positive and negative impact on receivers. In particular, the effects of media or new media (specifically) have put a great impact on Middle Eastern societies in past few years. This paper aims to discuss the effects of media evident in the Middle Eastern Societies with the help of assessment of news media by Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman in Manufacturing Consent: the Political Economy of the Mass Media. Many media conservatives have asserted that it is the negative role of media that had inflicted rebellious vibe among the nations in Middle East. As an assertion to counter the aforementioned argument, it was well stated by media practitioners that media has just helped the nations to understand their rights and duties. A news channel, a newspaper, a website or a radio station cannot actually make people to join the protest. There are other factors which are needed to begin a revolution (McPhail, 2011). These counter arguments a ctually help us understanding the facts and figures. People who have been ignorant about their roles and rights in Egypt and Syria began to understand their roles in the society with the help of media wave. In particular, youth who were involved in using new media get to understand their rights. ... Mainly social media has allowed the relationship between state and nation to become open. For the western regions of the world, the ease of communication between state and nation is appreciated (Mellor, Rinnawi, Dajani, & Ayish, 2013). On the other hand, in Middle Eastern countries, it is rather considered as a threat to the sovereignty of the state power. Precisely, the regime of governance in Middle Eastern countries is authoritative in nature that does not allow the viewpoints of nation to be considered as significant. The effect of media i.e. is the pace of feedback has rather made it difficult for the authoritative governments of the world to control the flow of information (Mellor, Rinnawi, Dajani, & Ayish, 2013). In addition, the effects of media have been noted as effective in the field of telecommunication. Let alone in the year of 2010, the selling of Smartphones has increased by large in Middle Eastern countries. The subscription of internet utility packages has skyrockete d in Middle Eastern societies. Consequently, telecommunication sector of Middle Easter region has become effective in contributing to the GDP in respective countries (Khaddim, 2013). In return, society is able to put impact on media communication as well. It should be noted that news channels and other mediums broadcast communication that is demanded by the society. If media will not broadcast the demanded content then they will have to bear loss of viewership. Another stakeholder that has been long involved in having impact on media is the advertisers (Ward, 2013). The cost of bringing communication sources to the processing is higher which is actually managed with the amount of money received by advertising campaigns. Other than public and advertisers, it is

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Public Sector Accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Public Sector Accounting - Essay Example In order to demonstrate the differences an organization from each sector has been taken. The chosen public sector organization is The Royal Mail Holdings Plc and the publicly listed company is Aviva Plc. Royal Mail is a 100% UK Government owned organization involved with the postal services throughout UK, Ireland and Europe (Royal Mail Group Ltd, 2012). Aviva is a UK-based largest global insurance company and world’s sixth largest (Aviva, 2012). The third section demonstrates the effect of the objectives of public sector accounting and the rules and regulations governing public sector organizations in the form of differences and similarities in the format, style and accounting policies in the annual reports of Royal Mail and Aviva. The fourth section deals with the role of auditor in both the organizations. Overall the four sections in the project analyze if the differences between the two sectors’ accounting practices are prominent or if there is any reduction in their differing frameworks. Accounting Needs & Objectives The public sector encompasses all the organizations that are not owned or operated by private organizations. The organizations’ control lies in the hands of the Government, either national or local. Public sector in UK is diverse and includes nationalized industries, Government agencies and public service organizations. Nationalized industries are commercial organizations that sell goods to market but are mainly governed by government-appointed boards and ministers rather than markets or shareholders. The surplus generated from their operations is expected to enable replacement investment. The government agencies include welfare services and taxation body. These agencies are required to deliver satisfactory services to the claimants and taxpayers by using the resources at their disposal. The public service organization provides health, policing and defence services on behalf of central or local government. These services ar e financed from the tax revenues and therefore not charged from the public directly. Unlike the private sector with a clear objective of profit-making, the public sector has a complex mix of objectives and demands. It is primarily concerned with serving the general public. The importance of public sector accounting and disclosures, and their differences from the private sector accounting is due to the following reasons: Lack of making Profits: The ultimate objective of a private organization if profit making and/or creating wealth for its shareholders. However a public sector organization’s objective is not considered profit making. Sometimes this suggests the possibility of inefficient use of resources or absence of commitment to provide good service to the clients due to no profit-making. Lack of Competition: A private sector organization usually operates in an industry with direct competitors and subject to regulations by oversight regulatory bodies. Contrary to this the p ublic sector organizations are not subject to disciplines of the markets and lack the comparability with other firms. Public Interest: There is a corporate governance framework and audit rules for private organizat

Friday, January 31, 2020

Junior Seminar class Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Junior Seminar class - Essay Example l Wild Animals made up 58.3% of the animals featured, Real Domesticated Animals made up of 8.3% of the animals featured, Fantasy Wild Animals made up of the animals featured, and Fantasy Domesticated Animals made up 25.0% of the animals featured. The magazine was made up of 62 pages which means that there was an animal featured for every 5 magazine pages. It is also interesting to note that except for the bird, no other animal was featured twice in the magazine. Other animals featured include the Marine Iguana, Wild Tortoise, Ocelot, Crab, Sea Lion, Elephant, Shark, Monkey, Crocodile, Water Buffalo, and the Horse. Given the nature of the statistics taken from these data, it can be inferred that the publication places a focus on nature and its elements because of the high rate of animals featured in it. The society may also be expected to be a nature loving one because of the emphasis placed on exotic creatures. It may also be noted that a great degree of importance is placed on the animals because of the advertisements and articles made that feature

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Carl Friedrich Gauss Essay -- Mathematician Biography Biographical Ess

Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) Introduction: Carl Friedrich Gauss is considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. He is a creator in the logical-mathematical domain as he contributed many ideas to the fields of mathematics, astronomy, and physics. Being a math education major, I have come into contact with Gauss’ work quite a few times. He contributed greatly to the different areas of mathematics like linear algebra, calculus, and number theory. Creativity can be seen when a person makes or discovers substantially new ideas that dramatically impact the domain in which the person is working. Gauss’ work should be considered creative because he contributed so many new theorems and ideas to mathematics, astronomy, and physics. Unlike some of the creators Gardner studied, Gauss seemed to be a truly decent man. He never tried to criticize his rivals or make himself stand above the rest. He solved problems because he loved math. Some theorems that we credit to being solved by someone else were really discovered earlier by Gauss. He did not publish everything because he did not have time to finish it all. That is why I hold Gauss higher than some of the other creators we read about. He was a decent man who worked for the love of math. I also greatly admire his work. Any mathematician who can prove so many different ideas in so many different areas of mathematics is truly a genius. Relation to Gardner’s Triad: As a child, Gauss was a prodigy. This event happened just before Gauss turned three years old. â€Å"One Saturday Gerhard Gauss (his father) was making out the weekly payroll for the laborers under his charge, unaware that his young son was following the proceedings with critical atten... ...had been braver and published his ideas on a non-Euclidean geometry, then he would have fit Gardner’s model almost perfectly. Instead he chose to publish works that would not raise a lot of political controversy. Although Gauss is considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time, he would have been in a class by himself if he would have published everything he had discovered. Works Cited Bell, E.T. Men of Mathematics. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986. Bretscher, Otto. Linear Algebra with Applications. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1997. Burton, David M. The History of Mathematics, an Introduction. Newton, Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1985. O’Conner, J.J. and E.F. Robertson. â€Å"Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss.† (Dec. 1996). 26 November, 2001

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Reality TV and Morality

Invention of television is a product of a spectacular brain who has a great influence on everybody’s life nowadays, some of them are mortal, some of them are like brain-washing and some are just a little just because of reality televisions. This reality television changes the concept of reality in people’s mind. Television first started as our eye for outer world which we don’t know about and for being informed which we can say a â€Å"tool† but now it is just our â€Å"aim† to be on television. So this is forming obsessed brains which causing death of morality as Rushdie says. First of all, main reason why people are joining these reality programmes is just the anxiety of being rich and famous which are the most two important notions in western society in these days (Rushdie, 2010, p. 63). Contestants are doing bizarre and disturbing just for obtaining wealth and fame, like a guy fried his hand at American Survivor (Rushdie, 2010, p. 63). This leads us Rushdie’s thesis â€Å"good to be bad† (Rushdie, 2010, p. 64) from which it is comprehensible that people acts like mindless zombies like the hand frying guy. Good to be bad† refers to a lot of other things too like being selfish just for winning prize and being double faced in the competition. So it forms a question in mind; do you really need to be talented to win these competitions? Absolutely no (Rushdie, 2010, p. 63). You just need to play the game with its â€Å"corrupted† rules. One of the biggest immoral issues is the first death on television (Rushdie, 2010, p. 64) which n egates the most basic natural right that we have. Moreover, it is need to define what morality is. It distinguishes good and bad. However, â€Å"good to be bad† ignores it completely. As it became a common ritual to watch television in home with the whole family, children will be affected heavily by these programmes and generation by generation the spirit of morality will change or collapse. However producers don’t care others much, they just need ratings, big articles in newspapers next day after the show just for their name to be written on those piece of papers. These producers are enough blind and shallow that they can’t see influence of these programmes on society, so we are being acted like a guinea pig. They are just damaging society’s mental stability and pushing them act immoral in their lives without consciousness with injecting these awkward behaviours by their programmes. So basically contestants and producers are becoming famous without doing anything else. This is just an unfair way of tricking people and paralyzing them in front of television and even it annihilates our understanding of morality. Furthermore, there is another point of view which is not able to not to take into consideration about those poor contestants. Poniewozik tells that: â€Å"Isn’t there something simply wrong with people who enjoy entertainment that depends on ordinary people getting their heart broken, being told they can’t sing, or getting played for fools? â€Å" (Poniewozik, 2010, p. 70). It is really sad that some people are enjoying with this stuff. As spectators are the people who watch television in their home, it is acceptable to say that, there are lots of â€Å"already diseased† brains which are exempt of notion of morality. Everyone can imagine children will be affected more than everyone. They will be lost while they are searching their personalities and it is a high odd that they canalise to wrong role models for their life. So they are the main and the weakest victims. Something must be done to avoid for our future generation not to get attracted by those programmes or they should be aware while watching those television programmes or it is fatal that humanity will lose the â€Å"judgement ability†. As a result, these ideas show us that reality tv’s are really dangerous and causes death of morality. These un-realistic programmes are being watched nowadays and spectators don’t have any idea what they are watching. It’s clear that reality tv’s are absurd and not worth to watch. However there are no ways to avoid watching them because we can not limit or cut television sells. Immoral behaviours will increase day by day; if this problems goes on, there will be serious behaviour malfunctions in society. Some can say not to watch them but it will just enter from left ear and fly out from right ear. It’s able to see that Rushdie is right with his arguments so it’s clear that reality tv is a regret.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Organization Recommendations for Safeway Essay - 1087 Words

Any successful organization in in the 21st century should have a mission and a vision. When an organization has a foundation and a purpose for existence, they will have the basic qualities of a successful establishment. To follow through with a mission, a vision must be created. A vision is based off of a company’s purpose for existence and formation of long-term goals. Without goals, an organization has nothing to work for and no reason to become successful. While working at Safeway, I was aware of the mission of the company and the vision that the company had. This organization relied on the customers that walked through the door every day; this was evident in the mission statement. Their mission was to earn loyalty from customers†¦show more content†¦This culture brought negative effects and positive effects to organization. The major drawback of this culture was the suffering work environment; with the focus of the organization being external, many employees felt pressured to complete their assignments on time. Additionally, some people felt that their hours would be taken away if they did not complete their job with perfection. This tense work environment proved to create resentment towards certain people and generated a form of competitiveness that was deemed harmful for the employees. Although the achievement culture contained a few drawbacks, there were a few perks that allowed the organization to succeed. Many department managers had a goal oriented mentality, this mentality allowed them to become creative in how to meet their goals. When sales goals were met, bonuses and rewards were given to department managers. This type of personal initiative gives employees a reason to work and to want to help the organization. Additionally, when sales goals are met there is usually an increase payroll for the company; this increase in payroll allows workers to work more hours and be more financially stable. In order to continue the success of this company and increase the profitability of this organization, a few changes should take place. My first recommendation is to modify the mission statement. Although the mission statement is present in theShow MoreRelatedCase Study Trader Joe Keeping It Fresh711 Words   |  3 Pagesperformance because they are compensated very well in their earnings, benefits and professional growth opportunities. Employees’ that are based in California stores â€Å"can earn almost 20 percent more than counterparts at supermarket giants Albertsons or Safeway† (Uhl-Bien et al., 2013, p. 98). 2. In what ways does Trader Joe’s demonstrate the importance of each responsibility in the management process: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling? 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